2.08 - Outcome Options

Once the person with the disability compares their baseline or starting information with information gained through ongoing self-evaluation, they will be able to reach one of three potential conclusions:

  1. Progress is adequate but I’m not quite there yet!
  2. Progress is adequate and I have achieved my goal.
  3. Progress is inadequate.

As shown in Figure 4, each conclusion leads to a different course of actions.

If the outcome is less than adequate (i.e., does not meet criteria for achieving a goal) or is adequate but the goal was not met, it will be important for the facilitator to work with the person with the disability and evaluate the goal, criteria for meeting the goal, and the action plan. For example, is the goal too broad, too specific, too difficult, or too easy? Is the criteria for meeting the goal a good indicator of success, a poor indicator, or too difficult to measure. Is the action plan effective or ineffective? Is a new or different strategy needed for the action plan? Is there a need to focus more time on completing the action plan?

It may be best to start out working on one goal at a time. This will make it easier for the person with the disability to concentrate on the goal and be more productive. It is also critical that the person with the disability select the goal and start with a goal that is important to his or her job and career goals. The person with the disability will probably be more motivated to design, implement, and complete an effective action plan if the goal is important. Early success will make future use of the model and subsequent successful job and career outcomes more likely.

Figure 4: Self-determined Career Development Model: Outcome Options


Having stressed the importance of starting out by focusing on one goal at a time, it is also important to note that the model does not have to be implemented in a linear manner. The person using the model does not always have to start on Phase 1 and end on Phase 3. Further, someone using the model can work toward several goals simultaneously. It will depend upon the individual.

In summary, this model provides people with disabilities with a process that will enable them to use strategies to achieve instructional control (self-recording, self-evaluation, self-reinforcement) and self-regulate their learning and behavior to achieve a goal. While goal setting is an important piece, people using the model learn to evaluate their goals and progress and to adjust their direction and action plans. This process, the Self-Determined Career Development Model provides facilitators with a way to support self-directed learning in setting job and career goals. Consumers do not have to do everything independently. Instead, they are provided with the supports they need to be causal agents in the learning process. Consumers are supported to direct as much of the process as they are able to direct and become catalysts in their own job and career futures!




Page updated 10/31/06

End of basic content. Credits, navigation links and, where relevant, reference citations follow.

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Bolding, N. L. W., M.L. (1999). It's my future! Planning for what I want in my life. Silver City, MD, The Arc of the United States.

Mithaug, D., Wehmeyer, M., Agran, M., Martin, J., & Palmer, S.B. (1998). The self-determined learning model of instruction: Engaging students to solve their learning problems. In M. L. W. D. J. Sands (Ed.), Making it happen: Student involvement in education planning, decision making, and instruction (pp. 299-327). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing Company.

Wehmeyer, M., & Kelchner, K. (1995). Whose future is it anyway? A student-directed transition planning process. Arlington: The Arc of the United States.

Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Agran, M., Mithaug, D. E., & Martin, J. E. (2000). Promoting causal agency: The self-determined learning model of instruction. Exceptional Children, 66(4), 439-453.

Wehmeyer, M. L., Lattimore, J., Jorgensen, J. D., Palmer, S. B., Thompson, E., & Schumaker, K. (2003). The self-determined career development model: A pilot study. The Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 19(2), 79-87.

Index | 2.01 | 2.02 | 2.03 | Quiz 2 | 2.04 | 2.05 | Quiz 3 |2.06 | 2.07 | 2.08 | Quiz 4 | 2.09 | Final Quiz

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